Therapeutic Actions Light Therapy

NCBI pubmed

Black-Phosphorus-Based Orientation-Induced Diodes.

Black-Phosphorus-Based Orientation-Induced Diodes. Adv Mater. 2017 Nov 23;: Authors: Xin W, Li XK, He XL, Su BW, Jiang XQ, Huang KX, Zhou XF, Liu ZB, Tian JG Abstract Despite many decades of research of diodes, which are fundamental components of electronic and photoelectronic devices with p-n or Schottky junctions using bulk or 2D materials, stereotyped architectures and complex technological processing (doping and multiple material operations) have limited future development. Here, a novel rectification device, an orientation-induced diode, assembled using only few-layered black phosphorus (BP) is investigated. The key to its realization is to utilize the remarkable anisotropy of BP in low dimensions and change the charge-transport conditions abruptly along the different crystal orientations. Rectification ratios of 6.8, 22, and 115 can be achieved in cruciform BP, cross-stacked BP junctions, and BP junctions stacked with vertical orientations, respectively. The underlying physical processes and mechanisms can be explained using "orientation barrier" band theory. The theoretical results are experimentally confirmed using localized scanning photocurrent imaging. These orientation-induced optoelectronic devices open possibilities for 2D anisotropic materials with a new degree of freedom to improve modulation in diodes. PMID: 29168903 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Curcumin mediated down-regulation of αV β3 integrin and up-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) in Erlotinib resistant SW480 colon cancer cells.

Curcumin mediated down-regulation of αV β3 integrin and up-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) in Erlotinib resistant SW480 colon cancer cells. Phytother Res. 2017 Nov 23;: Authors: Javadi S, Rostamizadeh K, Hejazi J, Parsa M, Fathi M Abstract Erlotinib is a potent, selective, and orally active inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor, but the development of erlotinib resistance during chemotherapy can lead to treatment failure. To shed light on the erlotinib-resistant pathway, this study investigated the effect of combination therapy using curcumin- and erlotinib-loaded nanoparticles on the expression of αv β3 integrin and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) in an erlotinib-resistant SW480 colon cancer cell line. An erlotinib-resistant SW480 colon cancer cell line was produced by long-term exposure to erlotinib. Curcumin-loaded Methoxy poly ethylene glycol Poly caprolactone (cur/mPEG-PCL) and erlotinib-loaded mPEG-PCL (erl/mPEG-PCL) micelles were provided using a single step nanoprecipitation method and used as combination therapy of resistant SW480 cancer cells. After that, gene expression levels of PDK4, αv, and β3 mRNA were determined by the semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Protein levels of whole αv β3 integrin were evaluated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. In SW480 cell line, the IC50 of nonresistant and resistant cells was 87.6 ± 1.2 nM and 19.1 ± 0.14 μM, for erlotinib and it was about 21.8 and 30 μM for curcumin, respectively. Although PDK4 expression was not significantly different in resistant and nonresistant cells, its expression was up regulated (1.4 fold) in resistant cells by a combination therapy of cur/mPEG-PCL at a dose of 3 μM and erl/mPEG-PCL at a dose of 5 μM. β3 mRNA and the protein level of whole αv β3 integrin was significantly higher in resistant SW480 cells as compared with those in nonresistant cells. In terms of treatment, a combination of 6-μM cur/mPEG-PCL and 5-μM erl/mPEG-PCL down regulated β3 gene expression 6.6-fold in resistant cells as compared with nonresistant cells. At the protein level, a combination of 3-μM-cur/mPEG-PCL and 10-μM erl/mPEG-PCL reduced αv β3 protein in resistant cells. The results indicated that combination therapy using cur/mPEG-PCL and erl/mPEG-PCL could decrease αv β3 integrin expression and increase PDK4 gene expression in resistant colon cancer cells, which may have effects on drug resistance signaling pathways. PMID: 29168312 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Safinamide differentially modulates in vivo glutamate and GABA release in the rat hippocampus and basal ganglia.

Safinamide differentially modulates in vivo glutamate and GABA release in the rat hippocampus and basal ganglia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2017 Nov 22;: Authors: Morari M, Brugnoli A, Pisano CA, Novello S, Caccia C, Melloni E, Padoani G, Vailati S, Sardina M Abstract Safinamide has been recently approved as add-on to levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease. In addition to inhibiting monoamine oxidase-type B, it also blocks sodium channels and modulates glutamate release in vitro. Since this property might contribute to the therapeutic action of the drug, we undertook the present study to investigate whether safinamide inhibits glutamate release also in vivo, and whether this effect is consistent across different brain areas and is selective for glutamatergic neurons. To this aim, in vivo microdialysis was used to monitor the spontaneous and veratridine-induced glutamate and GABA release in the hippocampus and basal ganglia of naive, awake rats. Brain levels of safinamide were measured along. To shed light on the mechanisms underlying the effect of safinamide, sodium currents were measured by patch-clamp recording in rat cortical neurons. Safinamide maximally inhibited the veratridine-induced glutamate and GABA release in hippocampus at 15 mg/kg, which reached free brain concentrations of 1.89-1.37 µM. This dose attenuated the veratridine-stimulated glutamate (but not GABA) release also in subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra reticulata, but not striatum. Safinamide was ineffective on spontaneous neurotransmitter release. In vitro, safinamide inhibited sodium channels, showing greater affinity at depolarized (IC50=8 µM) than resting (IC50=262 µM) potentials. We conclude that safinamide inhibits in vivo glutamate release from stimulated nerve terminals likely via blockade of sodium channels at subpopulations of neurons with specific firing patterns. These data are consistent with the anticonvulsant and antiparkinsonian actions of safinamide, and provide support for the non-dopaminergic mechanism of its action. PMID: 29167350 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Photobiodulation Inhibits Long-Term Structural and Functional Lesions of Diabetic Retinopathy.

Photobiodulation Inhibits Long-Term Structural and Functional Lesions of Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetes. 2017 Nov 22;: Authors: Cheng Y, Du Y, Liu H, Tang J, Veenstra A, Kern TS Abstract Previous studies demonstrated that brief (3-4 minutes), daily application of light at 670nm to diabetic rodents inhibited molecular and pathophysiologic processes implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR), and reversed diabetic macular edema in small numbers of patients studied. Whether or not this therapy would inhibit the neural and vascular lesions that characterize the early stages of the retinopathy was unknown. We administered photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy daily for 8 months to streptozotocin-diabetic mice, and assessed effects of PBM on visual function, retinal capillary permeability, and capillary degeneration using published methods. Vitamin D receptor and Cyp24a1 transcripts were quantified by qRT-PCR, and the abundance of c-Kit(+) stem cells in blood and retina were assessed. Long-term daily administration of PBM significantly inhibited the diabetes-induced leakage and degeneration of retinal capillaries, and significantly inhibited also the diabetes-induced reduction in visual function. PBM also inhibited diabetes-induced reductions in retinal Cyp24a1 mRNA levels and numbers of circulating stem cells (CD45(-)/c-Kit(+)), but these effects may not account for the beneficial effects of PBM on the retinopathy. PBM significantly inhibits the functional and histopathologic features of early DR, and these effects likely are mediated via multiple mechanisms. PMID: 29167189 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Phototherapy: experience from a reference service.

Related Articles Phototherapy: experience from a reference service. An Bras Dermatol. 2017 Sep-Oct;92(5):745-746 Authors: Ujihara JED, Ferreira FR, Mandelbaum SH PMID: 29166527 [PubMed - in process]

Photodynamic action of the red laser on Propionibacterium acnes.

Related Articles Photodynamic action of the red laser on Propionibacterium acnes. An Bras Dermatol. 2017 Sep-Oct;92(5):622-625 Authors: Ramos RR, Paiva JL, Gomes JPFDS, Boer NP, Godoy JMP, Batigalia F Abstract BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy is a therapeutic modality that has consolidated its activity in the photooxidation of organic matter, which arises from the activity of reactive oxygen species. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of red laser 660nm with the photosensitizer methylene blue on Propionibacterium acnes in vitro. METHOD: The experimental design was distributed into four groups (1 - control group without the application of light and without photosensitizer, 2 - application of light, 3 - methylene blue without light, and 4 - methylene blue with light). Tests were subjected to red laser irradiation 660nm by four cycles of 5 minutes at 3-minute intervals. RESULTS: It was evidenced the prominence of the fourth cycle (20 minutes) groups 2, 3 and 4. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Despite the favorable results, the laser irradiation time photosensitizer associated with methylene blue were not sufficient to to completely inhibit the proliferation of bacteria. CONCLUSION: Further studies in vitro are recommended to enable the clinical application of this photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy. PMID: 29166495 [PubMed - in process]

Manganese Dioxide Coated WS2 @Fe3 O4 /sSiO2 Nanocomposites for pH-Responsive MR Imaging and Oxygen-Elevated Synergetic Therapy.

Related Articles Manganese Dioxide Coated WS2 @Fe3 O4 /sSiO2 Nanocomposites for pH-Responsive MR Imaging and Oxygen-Elevated Synergetic Therapy. Small. 2017 Nov 22;: Authors: Yang G, Zhang R, Liang C, Zhao H, Yi X, Shen S, Yang K, Cheng L, Liu Z Abstract Recently, the development of multifunctional theranostic nanoplatforms to realize tumor-specific imaging and enhanced cancer therapy via responding or modulating the tumor microenvironment (TME) has attracted tremendous interests in the field of nanomedicine. Herein, tungsten disulfide (WS2 ) nanoflakes with their surface adsorbed with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) via self-assembly are coated with silica and then subsequently with manganese dioxide (MnO2 ), on to which polyethylene glycol (PEG) is attached. The obtained WS2 -IO/S@MO-PEG appears to be highly sensitive to pH, enabling tumor pH-responsive magnetic resonance imaging with IONPs as the pH-inert T2 contrast probe and MnO2 as the pH-sensitive T1 contrast probe. Meanwhile, synergistic combination tumor therapy is realized with such WS2 -IO/S@MO-PEG, by utilizing the strong near-infrared light and X-ray absorbance of WS2 for photothermal therapy (PTT) and enhanced cancer radiotherapy (RT), respectively, as well as the ability of MnO2 to decompose tumor endogenous H2 O2 and relieve tumor hypoxia to further overcome hypoxia-associated radiotherapy resistance. The combination of PTT and RT with WS2 -IO/S@MO-PEG results in a remarkable synergistic effect to destruct tumors. This work highlights the promise of developing multifunction nanocomposites for TME-specific imaging and TME modulation, aiming at precision cancer synergistic treatment. PMID: 29165872 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Mechanisms and Mitochondrial Redox Signaling in Photobiomodulation.

Related Articles Mechanisms and Mitochondrial Redox Signaling in Photobiomodulation. Photochem Photobiol. 2017 Nov 22;: Authors: Hamblin MR Abstract Photobiomodulation (PBM) involves the use of red or near-infrared light at low power densities to produce a beneficial effect on cells or tissues. PBM therapy is used to reduce pain, inflammation, edema, and to regenerate damaged tissues such as wounds, bones and tendons. The primary site of light absorption in mammalian cells has been identified as the mitochondria, and more specifically, cytochrome c oxidase (CCO). It is hypothesized that inhibitory nitric oxide can be dissociated from CCO thus restoring electron transport and increasing mitochondrial membrane potential. Another mechanism involves activation of light or heat-gated ion channels. This review will cover the redox signaling that occurs in PBM and examine the difference between healthy and stressed cells, where PBM can have apparently opposite effects. PBM has a marked effect on stem cells, and this is proposed to operate via mitochondrial redox signaling. PBM can act as a pre-conditioning regimen, and can interact with exercise on muscles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 29164625 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Neurological Complications of HIV Infection.

Related Articles Neurological Complications of HIV Infection. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2017 Nov 21;19(12):50 Authors: Farhadian S, Patel P, Spudich S Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are common in patients with HIV disease, even during suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This review article addresses the pathogenesis of HAND, focusing on important findings from the last 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: While HIV-associated dementia is now rare in settings with cART availability, mild forms of HAND are increasing in prevalence. Biomarkers of cellular injury, such as neurofilament light chain and neopterin, can detect early stages of neuroinflammation associated with HIV infection and are increased even in asymptomatic individuals with chronic HIV infection. Several recent studies form a growing body of evidence that HIV can infect and replicate in monocytes and that blocking monocyte activity can potentially improve neurological outcomes in HIV. Early cART may also prevent HAND. Understanding the multifactorial causes of CNS infection and inflammation is critical to devising treatment and preventive strategies for HAND. PMID: 29164407 [PubMed]

Effect of a cognitive task and light finger touch on standing balance in healthy adults.

Related Articles Effect of a cognitive task and light finger touch on standing balance in healthy adults. Exp Brain Res. 2017 Nov 21;: Authors: Lee Y, Goyal N, Aruin AS Abstract The purpose of the study was to investigate the individual and combined effects of applying light finger touch and performing a cognitive task on postural sway. Fourteen healthy young individuals stood on the force platform with light finger touch contact applied to an external stable structure and without finger touch. Both tasks were performed with and without a cognitive task (counting backward from a randomly chosen three-digit number). The center of pressure excursion and velocity as well as sway area were calculated. Participants demonstrated significantly smaller postural sway in the presence of a finger touch contact (p < 0.05), while postural sway was increased during the performance of the cognitive task (p < 0.05). When two tasks were performed simultaneously, body sway increased as compared to standing with light touch only (p < 0.05) and decreased when compared to standing and performing the cognitive task only (p < 0.05). This suggests that a positive effect of finger touch on body sway could be diminished by the simultaneous performance of a cognitive task. The outcome provides a foundation for future studies of the individual and combined effects of light finger touch and cognitive tasks on postural control. PMID: 29164286 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Fluorous photosensitizers enhance photodynamic therapy with perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions.

Related Articles Fluorous photosensitizers enhance photodynamic therapy with perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions. Chem Commun (Camb). 2017 Nov 22;: Authors: Day RA, Estabrook DA, Logan JK, Sletten EM Abstract Photodynamic therapy (PDT) requires a photosensitizer, light, and oxygen to induce cell death. The majority of efforts to advance PDT focus only on the first two components. Here, we employ perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions to simultaneously deliver oxygen and a photosensitizer. We find that the implementation of fluorous soluble photosensitizers enhances the efficacy of PDT. PMID: 29164187 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Childhood lupus nephritis: 12 years of experience from a developing country's perspective.

Related Articles Childhood lupus nephritis: 12 years of experience from a developing country's perspective. Eur J Rheumatol. 2017 Sep;4(3):178-183 Authors: Samanta M, Nandi M, Mondal R, Hazra A, Sarkar S, Sabui T, Kundu CK, Biswas A Abstract Objective: To assess the long-term outcome of lupus nephritis in children with systemic lupus erythematosus followed up over 12 years at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Eastern India. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective observational study of the clinicopathological presentation, management, and outcome in 46 children with lupus nephritis over a period of 12 years at a tertiary teaching hospital in Eastern India. Mortality was compared between different lupus classes and therapy groups with Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test. Results: The incidence of lupus nephritis was 58.97% [95% confidence interval (CI) 48.06%-59.89%] with the mean age at presentation being 10.2±2.43 years (range 5.5-14.5) years. Majority belonged to class IV (30.43%), followed by class II (26.91%), class III (23.91), and class V (8.70%). Outcome analysis of children with lupus nephritis over 12 years revealed that 24 (52.17%) achieved complete remission of disease activity, 5 attained partial remission, 4 continued to have active disease, 5 developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and 8 died. Overall mortality thus observed was 17.39% with septicemia in the background of ESRD being the commonest cause. No significant difference in mortality was observed between different lupus nephritis classes or therapy arm groups. Conclusion: The study throws light on various aspects of lupus nephritis and their long-term outcome patterns in children from developing countries such as India. PMID: 29163999 [PubMed]

Use of a social media network to reduce early neonatal mortality: a preliminary report from a quality improvement project in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Related Articles Use of a social media network to reduce early neonatal mortality: a preliminary report from a quality improvement project in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Matern Health Neonatol Perinatol. 2017;3:26 Authors: Amani A, Nansseu JR, Mah EM, Vougmo CM, Moluh SM, Mbu R Abstract Background: Perinatal networks have yielded substantial contribution in decreasing the neonatal mortality rate. We present here the process of implementation of a perinatal network in Yaoundé (Cameroon) based on the WhatsApp messenger application as well as some preliminary results and achievements. Methods: In December 2016, the Yaoundé Perinatal Network was launched, regrouping a multidisciplinary team of health professionals dealing with perinatal care in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The network takes advantage of WhatsApp facilities and is coordinated by 5 administrators. One of their main duties is to have a twice-daily updated status of the available equipment (incubators, oxygen and phototherapy) and bed capacities across the Yaoundé pediatric units. Once a request is sent through the network, other members react, either by giving advice or by telling where the desired equipment or expertise is available at that moment. Then, the baby is immediately prepared for transfer, occurring once the receiving pediatric unit has attested that it is already prepared to receive the new patient. Results: From December 18, 2016 to July 31, 2017, 139 members representing all the principal maternities and tertiary pediatric units in Yaoundé were already included in the network. The network permitted instant sharing of knowledge and information between its members for an optimal delivery of care. Two hundred and seventeen neonates were transferred using the network; the median time of response after a request had been sent was 19.5 min and the delay in transferring a neonate averaged 70 min. Conclusion: Taking account of the preliminary promising notes, there is hope that the Yaoundé Perinatal Network will help to reduce neonatal mortality in our context. Lessons learned from its implementation will serve to replicate this innovative health action in other towns of the country. Moreover, this experience could be a source of inspiration for other countries facing similar challenges. PMID: 29163979 [PubMed]

Structural basis of the therapeutic anti-PD-L1 antibody atezolizumab.

Related Articles Structural basis of the therapeutic anti-PD-L1 antibody atezolizumab. Oncotarget. 2017 Oct 27;8(52):90215-90224 Authors: Zhang F, Qi X, Wang X, Wei D, Wu J, Feng L, Cai H, Wang Y, Zeng N, Xu T, Zhou A, Zheng Y Abstract Monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway have achieved unprecedented success in cancer treatment over the last few years. Atezolizumab is the first PD-L1 monoclonal antibody approved by US FDA for cancer therapy; however the molecular basis of atezolizumab in blocking PD-1/PD-L1 interaction is not fully understood. Here we have solved the crystal structure of PD-L1/atezolizumab complex at 2.9 angstrom resolution. The structure shows that atezolizumab binds the front beta-sheet of PD-L1 through three CDR loops from the heavy chain and one CDR loop from the light chain. The binding involves extensive hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Notably there are multiple aromatic residues from the CDR loops forming Pi-Pi stacking or cation-Pi interactions within the center of the binding interface and the buried surface area is more than 2000 Å(2), which is the largest amongst all the known PD-L1/antibody structures. Mutagenesis study revealed that two hot-spot residues (E58, R113) of PD-L1 contribute significantly to the binding of atezolizumab. The structure also shows that atezolizumab binds PD-L1 with a distinct heavy and light chain orientation and it blocks PD-1/PD-L1 interaction through competing with PD-1 for the same PD-L1 surface area. Taken together, the complex structure of PD-L1/atezolizumab solved here revealed the molecular mechanism of atezolizumab in immunotherapy and provides basis for future monoclonal antibody optimization and rational design of small chemical compounds targeting PD-L1 surface. PMID: 29163822 [PubMed]

Pulse frequency dependency of photobiomodulation on the bioenergetic functions of human dental pulp stem cells.

Related Articles Pulse frequency dependency of photobiomodulation on the bioenergetic functions of human dental pulp stem cells. Sci Rep. 2017 Nov 21;7(1):15927 Authors: Kim HB, Baik KY, Choung PH, Chung JH Abstract Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy contributes to pain relief, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. The pulsed wave (PW) mode has been reported to be more effective than the continuous wave (CW) mode when applying PBM to many biological systems. However, the reason for the higher effectiveness of PW-PBM is poorly understood. Herein, we suggest using delayed luminescence (DL) as a reporter of mitochondrial activity after PBM treatment. DL originates mainly from mitochondrial electron transport chain systems, which produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The decay time of DL depends on the pulse frequencies of applied light, which correlate with the biological responses of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Using a low-power light whose wavelength is 810 nm and energy density is 38 mJ/cm(2), we find that a 300-Hz pulse frequency prolonged the DL pattern and enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity. In addition, we analyze mitochondrial morphological changes and their volume density and find evidence supporting mitochondrial physiological changes from PBM treatment. Our data suggest a new methodology for determining the effectiveness of PBM and the specific pulse frequency dependency of PBM in the differentiation of hDPSCs. PMID: 29162863 [PubMed - in process]

Liposomes assembled from dimeric retinoic acid phospholipid with improved pharmacokinetic properties.

Related Articles Liposomes assembled from dimeric retinoic acid phospholipid with improved pharmacokinetic properties. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2017 Nov 18;: Authors: Lu L, Du Y, Ismail M, Ling L, Yao C, Fu Z, Li X Abstract All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) exhibits potent cytotoxicities against different cancer cells by binding to retinoic acid receptors (RARs), which is regarded as the first example of targeted therapy in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, its extensive clinical applications have been limited because of poor aqueous solubility, short half-life time and side effects. In this report, dimeric ATRA phosphorylcholine prodrug (Di-ATRA-PC) was designed and assembled into nanoliposomes to improve its pharmacokinetic properties. Di-ATRA-PC prodrug was synthesized by a facile esterification and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The Di-ATRA-PC assembled liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method with ATRA loading efficiency up to 73wt%. The liposomes have a uniform particle size (73.1±3.6nm) with negatively charged surface (-20.5±2.5mV) and typical lipid bilayer structure as measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and cryogenic transmission electron microscope (cryo-TEM). In vitro drug release study confirmed that Di-ATRA-PC liposomes could sustainedly release free ATRA in a weakly acidic condition. Furthermore, cellular uptake, MTT and cell apoptosis analysis demonstrated that the liposomes could be successfully internalized into tumor cells to induce apoptosis of MCF-7 and HL-60 cells. More importantly, in vivo pharmacokinetic assay indicated that Di-ATRA-PC liposomes had much longer retention time in comparison with ATRA. In conclusion, Di-ATRA-PC liposomal formulation could be a potential drug delivery system of ATRA with enhanced pharmacokinetic properties. PMID: 29162478 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[Prematurity and nursing care in neonatal intensive care].

Related Articles [Prematurity and nursing care in neonatal intensive care]. Soins Pediatr Pueric. 2017 Nov - Dec;38(299):29-31 Authors: Laforêt N, Moughalme M, Dumas-Laussinotte A, Lecomte C Abstract In neonatal intensive care, the management of babies born prematurely requires particular vigilance from caregivers. Specific care procedures include enteral feeding and the development of the diet, the monitoring of vital signs, venous access management, blood withdrawal, phototherapy and obligatory screening. The nursing role is essential in this context. PMID: 29162256 [PubMed - in process]

Potentiating angiogenesis arrest in vivo via laser irradiation of peptide functionalised gold nanoparticles.

Related Articles Potentiating angiogenesis arrest in vivo via laser irradiation of peptide functionalised gold nanoparticles. J Nanobiotechnology. 2017 Nov 21;15(1):85 Authors: Pedrosa P, Heuer-Jungemann A, Kanaras AG, Fernandes AR, Baptista PV Abstract BACKGROUND: Anti-angiogenic therapy has great potential for cancer therapy with several FDA approved formulations but there are considerable side effects upon the normal blood vessels that decrease the potential application of such therapeutics. Chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) has been used as a model to study angiogenesis in vivo. Using a CAM model, it had been previously shown that spherical gold nanoparticles functionalised with an anti-angiogenic peptide can humper neo-angiogenesis. RESULTS: Our results show that gold nanoparticles conjugated with an anti-angiogenic peptide can be combined with visible laser irradiation to enhance angiogenesis arrest in vivo. We show that a green laser coupled to gold nanoparticles can achieve high localized temperatures able to precisely cauterize blood vessels. This combined therapy acts via VEGFR pathway inhibition, leading to a fourfold reduction in FLT-1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed phototherapy extends the use of visible lasers in clinics, combining it with chemotherapy to potentiate cancer treatment. This approach allows the reduction of dose of anti-angiogenic peptide, thus reducing possible side effects, while destroying blood vessels supply critical for tumour progression. PMID: 29162137 [PubMed - in process]

Modern Fixed Imaging Systems Reduce Radiation Exposure to Patients and Providers.

Related Articles Modern Fixed Imaging Systems Reduce Radiation Exposure to Patients and Providers. Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2017 Jan 01;:1538574417742211 Authors: Stangenberg L, Shuja F, van der Bom IMJ, van Alfen MHG, Hamdan AD, Wyers MC, Guzman RJ, Schermerhorn ML Abstract High-definition fluoroscopic imaging is required to perform endovascular procedures safely and precisely, especially in complex cases, resulting in longer procedures and increased radiation exposure. This is of importance for training institutions as trainees, even with sound instruction in as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principles, tend to have high radiation exposures. Recently, there was an upgrade in the imaging system allowing for comparison of radiation exposure to patients and providers. We performed an analysis of consecutive endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and superficial femoral artery (SFA) interventions in the years 2013 to 2014. We recorded body mass index (BMI) and fluoroscopy time (FT) and subsequently matched 1:1 based on BMI, FT, or both. We determined radiation dose using air kerma (AK) and also recorded individual surgeons' badge readings. Allura Xper FD20 was upgraded to AlluraClarity with ClarityIQ. We identified a total of 77 EVARs (52 pre and 25 post) and 134 SFA interventions (99 pre and 35 post). Unmatched results for EVAR were BMI pre 26.2 versus post 25.8 (kg/m(2), P = .325), FT 28.1 versus 21.2 (minutes, P = .051), and AK 1178.5 versus 581 (mGy, P < .001), respectively. After matching, there was a 53.2% reduction in AK (846.1 vs 395.9 mGy; P = .004) for EVAR. Unmatched results for SFA interventions were BMI pre 28.1 versus post 26.6 ( P = .327), FT 18.7 versus 16.2 ( P = .282), and AK 285.6 versus 106.0 ( P < .001), respectively. After matching, there was a 57.0% reduction in AK (305.0 vs 131.3, P < .001). The total deep dose equivalent from surgeons' badge readings decreased from 39.5 to 17 mrem ( P = .029). Aortic and peripheral endovascular interventions can be performed with reduced radiation exposure to patients and providers, employing modern fixed imaging systems with advanced dose reduction technology. This is of particular importance in the light of the increasing volume and complexity of endovascular and hybrid procedures as well as the prospect of decades of radiation exposure during training and practice. PMID: 29162024 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Micronuclei assay in exfoliated buccal cells of radiation treated oral cancer patients.

Related Articles Micronuclei assay in exfoliated buccal cells of radiation treated oral cancer patients. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2017 Nov;12(2):121-128 Authors: Ramesh G, Chaubey S, Raj A, Seth RK, Katiyar A, Kumar A Abstract BACKGROUND: Micronuclei are suitable internal dosimeters for revealing tissue-specific genotoxic damage in individuals exposed to carcinogenic mixtures. Evaluation of radiation-induced cellular changes to predict radiosensitivity has invested many investigators since such changes were first found in biopsy material. AIM: The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship of with histopathological grade and number of radiation therapy sittings with the frequency of micronuclei and nuclear anomalies among oral cancer patients. MATERIAL & METHOD: Thirty male patients with histologically proven cases of oral cancer undergoing radiation therapy and age and sex matched 20 healthy controls were included in the study. Scrape cytology smears of exfoliated buccal cells were prepared and stained using Feulgen stain and frequency of micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies counts were evaluated with the help of light microscope expressed as per 1000 buccal cells. RESULTS: The mean values of the micronuclei and nuclear anomalies were 14.03 and 21.30 respectively. There was a significant association and strong positive correlation of Radiation exposure and grades of squamous cell carcinoma with micronuclei and nuclear anomalies. There was no statistically significant association and correlation between nuclear anomalies in well differentiated and moderately differentiated carcinomas. CONCLUSION: With increase number of radiation therapy sittings, there was increase in number of micronuclei and nuclear anomalies. Hence the result of this study highlights that increased number of micronuclei and nuclear anomalies provides information regarding radiosensitivity of epithelial cells. PMID: 29161779 [PubMed - in process]
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