Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Grain-Free-Grain-Reduced

NCBI pubmed

Con: The role of diet for people with advanced Stage 5 CKD.

Con: The role of diet for people with advanced Stage 5 CKD. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2017 Nov 17;: Authors: Woodrow G Abstract Restriction of dietary protein intake has been used in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) for many decades, yet remains controversial, with marked variations in its application in clinical practice. There is extensive literature on the subject, with some expert opinion advocating the use of protein restriction based on the balance of the available evidence. The largest randomized trial of low-protein diets is the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study. Despite multiple secondary analyses, the essential intention-to-treat analysis failed to demonstrate a benefit in the primary outcome of rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate. There are criticisms of many published studies and meta-analyses, including the likelihood of publication bias and unsuitable biochemical endpoints that may be affected by dietary restriction in the absence of effects on kidney function, leading to false positive findings. It is also uncertain whether any benefits observed in these often older studies would be derived in patients undergoing modern standards of CKD management, including blood pressure control and renin-angiotensin blockade. Thus it is unclear whether, even in the strictly controlled environment of a clinical study, low-protein diets significantly slow CKD progression. Important questions exist regarding the applicability of these diets in routine clinical practice. Even in carefully selected study populations with intensive dietetic input, adherence to low-protein diets is poor. It is likely that only a small minority of CKD patients in routine practice could adhere to these diets, and although risks of malnutrition arising from protein restriction are uncertain, they will be greater in less supervised care outside of studies. PMID: 29165595 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Benefits of Nut Consumption on Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions.

Benefits of Nut Consumption on Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions. Nutrients. 2017 Nov 22;9(11): Authors: Kim Y, Keogh JB, Clifton PM Abstract Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts addressing effects on glycemic control, weight management, energy balance, appetite, gut microbiota modification, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function and blood pressure with a focus on data from both animal and human studies. The favourable effects of nuts could be explained by the unique nutrient composition and bioactive compounds in nuts. Unsaturated fatty acids (monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids) present in nuts may play a role in glucose control and appetite suppression. Fiber and polyphenols in nuts may also have an anti-diabetic effect by altering gut microbiota. Nuts lower serum cholesterol by reduced cholesterol absorption, inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and increased bile acid production by stimulation of 7-α hydroxylase. Arginine and magnesium improve inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial function and blood pressure. In conclusion, nuts contain compounds that favourably influence glucose homeostasis, weight control and vascular health. Further investigations are required to identify the most important mechanisms by which nuts decrease the risk of T2DM and CVD. PMID: 29165404 [PubMed - in process]

Diabetes and Sepsis: Risk, Recurrence, and Ruination.

Diabetes and Sepsis: Risk, Recurrence, and Ruination. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2017;8:271 Authors: Frydrych LM, Fattahi F, He K, Ward PA, Delano MJ Abstract Sepsis develops when an infection surpasses local tissue containment. A series of dysregulated physiological responses are generated, leading to organ dysfunction and a 10% mortality risk. When patients with sepsis demonstrate elevated serum lactates and require vasopressor therapy to maintain adequate blood pressure in the absence of hypovolemia, they are in septic shock with an in-hospital mortality rate >40%. With improvements in intensive care treatment strategies, overall sepsis mortality has diminished to ~20% at 30 days; however, mortality continues to steadily climb after recovery from the acute event. Traditionally, it was thought that the complex interplay between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses led to sepsis-induced organ dysfunction and mortality. However, a closer examination of those who die long after sepsis subsides reveals that many initial survivors succumb to recurrent, nosocomial, and secondary infections. The comorbidly challenged, physiologically frail diabetic individuals suffer the highest infection rates. Recent reports suggest that even after clinical "recovery" from sepsis, persistent alterations in innate and adaptive immune responses exists resulting in chronic inflammation, immune suppression, and bacterial persistence. As sepsis-associated immune defects are associated with increased mortality long-term, a potential exists for immune modulatory therapy to improve patient outcomes. We propose that diabetes causes a functional immune deficiency that directly reduces immune cell function. As a result, patients display diminished bactericidal clearance, increased infectious complications, and protracted sepsis mortality. Considering the substantial expansion of the elderly and obese population, global adoption of a Western diet and lifestyle, and multidrug resistant bacterial emergence and persistence, diabetic mortality from sepsis is predicted to rise dramatically over the next two decades. A better understanding of the underlying diabetic-induced immune cell defects that persist following sepsis are crucial to identify potential therapeutic targets to bolster innate and adaptive immune function, prevent infectious complications, and provide more durable diabetic survival. PMID: 29163354 [PubMed]

Lactobacillus acidophilus Metabolizes Dietary Plant Glucosides and Externalizes Their Bioactive Phytochemicals.

Lactobacillus acidophilus Metabolizes Dietary Plant Glucosides and Externalizes Their Bioactive Phytochemicals. MBio. 2017 Nov 21;8(6): Authors: Theilmann MC, Goh YJ, Nielsen KF, Klaenhammer TR, Barrangou R, Abou Hachem M Abstract Therapeutically active glycosylated phytochemicals are ubiquitous in the human diet. The human gut microbiota (HGM) modulates the bioactivities of these compounds, which consequently affect host physiology and microbiota composition. Despite a significant impact on human health, the key players and the underpinning mechanisms of this interplay remain uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus on mono- and diglucosyl dietary plant glycosides (PGs) possessing small aromatic aglycones. Transcriptional analysis revealed the upregulation of host interaction genes and identified two loci that encode phosphotransferase system (PTS) transporters and phospho-β-glucosidases, which mediate the uptake and deglucosylation of these compounds, respectively. Inactivating these transport and hydrolysis genes abolished or severely reduced growth on PG, establishing the specificity of the loci to distinct groups of PGs. Following intracellular deglucosylation, the aglycones of PGs are externalized, rendering them available for absorption by the host or for further modification by other microbiota taxa. The PG utilization loci are conserved in L. acidophilus and closely related lactobacilli, in correlation with versatile growth on these compounds. Growth on the tested PG appeared more common among human gut lactobacilli than among counterparts from other ecologic niches. The PGs that supported the growth of L. acidophilus were utilized poorly or not at all by other common HGM strains, underscoring the metabolic specialization of L. acidophilus These findings highlight the role of human gut L. acidophilus and select lactobacilli in the bioconversion of glycoconjugated phytochemicals, which is likely to have an important impact on the HGM and human host.IMPORTANCE Thousands of therapeutically active plant-derived compounds are widely present in berries, fruits, nuts, and beverages like tea and wine. The bioactivity and bioavailability of these compounds, which are typically glycosylated, are altered by microbial bioconversions in the human gut. Remarkably, little is known about the bioconversion of PGs by the gut microbial community, despite the significance of this metabolic facet to human health. Our work provides the first molecular insights into the metabolic routes of diet relevant and therapeutically active PGs by Lactobacillus acidophilus and related human gut lactobacilli. This taxonomic group is adept at metabolizing the glucoside moieties of select PG and externalizes their aglycones. The study highlights an important role of lactobacilli in the bioconversion of dietary PG and presents a framework from which to derive molecular insights into their metabolism by members of the human gut microbiota. PMID: 29162708 [PubMed - in process]

Metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in people living with HIV/AIDS without the use of antiretroviral therapy.

Related Articles Metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in people living with HIV/AIDS without the use of antiretroviral therapy. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2017 Sep-Oct;50(5):598-606 Authors: Raposo MA, Armiliato GNA, Guimarães NS, Caram CA, Silveira RDS, Tupinambás U Abstract INTRODUCTION: Metabolic disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLH) have been described even before the introduction of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the treatment of HIV infection and are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to assess metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in PLH before the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 87 PLH without the use of ART, which was carried out between January and September 2012 at a specialized infectious diseases center in Minas Gerais, Brazil. RESULTS: The main metabolic disorders in the population were low serum levels of HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia and abdominal obesity. Dyslipidemia was prevalent in 62.6% of the study population, whereas metabolic syndrome (MS) was prevalent in 11.5% of patients assessed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and 10.8% assessed by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Regarding cardiovascular risk, 89.7% of the population presented a low coronary risk according to the Framingham Risk Score. A greater proportion of patients diagnosed with MS presented low cardiovascular risk (80% assessed by IDF criteria and 77.8% assessed by NCEP-ATPIII criteria). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic disorders in this population may be due to HIV infection or lifestyle (smoking, sedentary lifestyle and inadequate diet). The introduction of ART can enhance dyslipidemia, increasing cardiovascular risk, especially among those who have classic risks of cardiovascular disease. PMID: 29160505 [PubMed - in process]

Stable Oxidative Cytosine Modifications Accumulate in Cardiac Mesenchymal Cells from Type2 Diabetes Patients: Rescue by Alpha-Ketoglutarate and TET-TDG Functional Reactivation.

Related Articles Stable Oxidative Cytosine Modifications Accumulate in Cardiac Mesenchymal Cells from Type2 Diabetes Patients: Rescue by Alpha-Ketoglutarate and TET-TDG Functional Reactivation. Circ Res. 2017 Nov 20;: Authors: Spallotta F, Cencioni C, Atlante S, Garella D, Cocco M, Mori M, Mastrocola R, Künne C, Günther S, Nanni S, Azzimato V, Zukunft S, Kornberger A, Sueruen D, Schnutgen F, von Melchner H, Di Stilo A, Aragno M, Braspenning M, Van Criekinge W, De Blasio MJ, Ritchie RH, Zaccagnini G, Martelli F, Farsetti A, Fleming I, Braun T, Beiras-Fernandez A, Botta B, Collino M, Bertinaria M, Zeiher AM, Gaetano C Abstract Rationale: Human cardiac mesenchymal cells (CMSCs) are a therapeutically-relevant primary cell population. Diabetes compromises CMSC function as consequence of metabolic alterations and incorporation of stable epigenetic changes. Objective: To investigate the role of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) in the epi-metabolic control of DNA demethylation in CMSCs. Methods and Results: Quantitative global analysis, methylated and hydroxymethylated DNA sequencing and gene specific GC methylation detection revealed an accumulation of 5mC, 5hmC and 5fC in the genomic DNA of human CMSCs isolated from diabetic (D) donors (D-CMSCs). Whole heart genomic DNA analysis revealed iterative oxidative cytosine modification accumulation in mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD), injected with streptozotocin (STZ) or both in combination (STZ-HFD). In this context, untargeted and targeted metabolomics indicated an intracellular reduction of αKG synthesis in D-CMSCs and in the whole heart of HFD mice. This observation was paralleled by a compromised thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) and ten eleven translocation protein 1 (TET1) association and function with TET1 relocating out of the nucleus. Molecular dynamics and mutational analyses showed that αKG binds TDG on Arg275 providing an enzymatic allosteric activation. As a consequence, the enzyme significantly increased its capacity to remove G/T nucleotide mismatches or 5fC. Accordingly, an exogenous source of αKG restored the DNA demethylation cycle by promoting TDG function, TET1 nuclear localization and TET/TDG association. TDG inactivation by CRISPR/Cas9 knockout or TET/TDG siRNA knockdown induced 5fC accumulation thus partially mimicking the diabetic epigenetic landscape in cells of non-diabetic origin. The novel compound (S)-2-[(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)amino]succinic acid (AA6), identified as an inhibitor of αKG-dehydrogenase, increased the αKG level in D-CMSCs and in the heart of HFD and STZ mice eliciting, in HFD, DNA demethylation, glucose uptake and insulin response. Conclusions: Restoring the epi-metabolic control of DNA demethylation cycle promises beneficial effects on cells compromised by environmental metabolic changes. PMID: 29158345 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Role of Physical Activity and Exercise in Treating Patients with Overweight and Obesity.

Related Articles Role of Physical Activity and Exercise in Treating Patients with Overweight and Obesity. Clin Chem. 2017 Nov 20;: Authors: Jakicic JM, Rogers RJ, Davis KK, Collins KA Abstract BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are significant public health concerns that are linked to numerous negative health consequences. Physical activity is an important lifestyle behavior that contributes to body weight regulation. CONTENT: Physical activity is inversely associated with weight gain and the incidence of obesity. Physical activity also contributes to additional weight loss when coupled with dietary modification, and it can result in modest weight loss when not coupled with dietary modification. Moreover, physical activity is associated with improved long-term weight loss and prevention of weight gain following initial weight loss. Current evidence supports that physical activity should be moderate to vigorous in intensity to influence body weight regulation. There is also a growing body of evidence that physical activity can be accumulated throughout the day in shorter periods of time rather than being performed during a structured and longer period, and that physical activity performed in this manner can be important for body weight regulation. SUMMARY: The literature supports the inclusion of physical activity as an important lifestyle behavior for regulating body weight. There are multiple intervention approaches that may be effective for enhancing physical activity engagement within the context of weight control. PMID: 29158251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

An Overview of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Its Application in Non-Parenteral Drug Delivery.

Related Articles An Overview of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Its Application in Non-Parenteral Drug Delivery. Pharmaceutics. 2017 Nov 20;9(4): Authors: Mohammed MA, Syeda JTM, Wasan KM, Wasan EK Abstract The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the chitosan based nanoparticles for various non-parenteral applications and also to put a spotlight on current research including sustained release and mucoadhesive chitosan dosage forms. Chitosan is a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer regarded as safe for human dietary use and approved for wound dressing applications. Chitosan has been used as a carrier in polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery through various routes of administration. Chitosan has chemical functional groups that can be modified to achieve specific goals, making it a polymer with a tremendous range of potential applications. Nanoparticles (NP) prepared with chitosan and chitosan derivatives typically possess a positive surface charge and mucoadhesive properties such that can adhere to mucus membranes and release the drug payload in a sustained release manner. Chitosan-based NP have various applications in non-parenteral drug delivery for the treatment of cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, pulmonary diseases, drug delivery to the brain and ocular infections which will be exemplified in this review. Chitosan shows low toxicity both in vitro and some in vivo models. This review explores recent research on chitosan based NP for non-parenteral drug delivery, chitosan properties, modification, toxicity, pharmacokinetics and preclinical studies. PMID: 29156634 [PubMed]

The prevalence of gluten free diet use among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder.

Related Articles The prevalence of gluten free diet use among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Res. 2017 Nov 20;: Authors: Rubenstein E, Schieve L, Bradley C, DiGuiseppi C, Moody E, Thomas K, Daniels J Abstract Our objective was to estimate prevalence of current or ever use of a gluten free diet (GFD) in children aged 30-68 months with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and population controls (POP); and to identify characteristics associated with ever having used GFD among children with ASD. We used data from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multi-site, case-control study of children with ASD. Caregivers reported GFD use by their children through structured questionnaires about diet patterns, gastrointestinal (GI) issues, and ASD-specific treatments. Prevalence was estimated and compared using log-Poisson regression, adjusting for confounders. In children with ASD, we examined whether child or mother's GI conditions or child's phenotypic traits were associated with ever trying a GFD. In SEED, 71 children with ASD (11.1% prevalence after adjustment) were on a GFD at time of the study and 130 (20.4%) had ever used a GFD, a greater percentage than in POP children (N = 11, 0.9% current use). Of current users with ASD, 50.7% had a dietary intervention that was prescribed by a medical professional. Among children with ASD, child GI conditions and developmental regression were positively and independently associated with having ever used a GFD. Current use and ever use of a GFD were prevalent in children with ASD identified in SEED. GFD usage was associated with GI issues and child phenotype. Clinicians may consider advising parents on how best to use these diets in the context of the child's GI presentation and current scientific knowledge about effectiveness in relation to ASD symptoms. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Gluten free diets (GFDs) are commonly used as an alternative therapy for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the effectiveness is still uncertain which makes it important to know who tries this type of diet. We found that one in five preschool aged children with ASD had ever used a GFD. Children with gastrointestinal conditions and developmental regression were more likely to have tried a GFD. PMID: 29155492 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The effect of viscous soluble fiber on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Related Articles The effect of viscous soluble fiber on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017 Oct 07;: Authors: Khan K, Jovanovski E, Ho HVT, Marques ACR, Zurbau A, Mejia SB, Sievenpiper JL, Vuksan V Abstract AIMS: Dietary fiber intake, especially viscous soluble fiber, has been established as a means to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Whether this is true for blood pressure remains controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to investigate the effects of viscous soluble fiber supplementation on blood pressure and quantify the effect of individual fibers. DATA SYNTHESIS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched. We included RCTs of ≥4-weeks in duration assessing viscous fiber supplementation from five types: β-glucan from oats and barley, guar gum, konjac, pectin and psyllium, on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Study data were pooled using the generic inverse variance method with random effects models and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Twenty-two (N = 1430) and twenty-one RCTs (N = 1343) were included in the final analysis for SBP and DBP, respectively. Viscous fiber reduced SBP (MD = -1.59 mmHg [95% CI: -2.72,-0.46]) and DBP (MD = -0.39 mmHg [95% CI: -0.76,-0.01]) at a median dose of 8.7 g/day (1.45-30 g/day) over a median follow-up of 7-weeks. Substantial heterogeneity in SBP (I(2) = 72%, P < 0.01) and DBP (I(2) = 67%, P < 0.01) analysis occurred. Within the five fiber types, SBP reductions were observed only for supplementation using psyllium fiber (MD = -2.39 mmHg [95% CI: -4.62,-0.17]). CONCLUSION: Viscous soluble fiber has an overall lowering effect on SBP and DBP. Inclusion of viscous fiber to habitual diets may have additional value in reducing CVD risk via improvement in blood pressure. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: identifier-NCT02670967. PMID: 29153856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[Diet treatment of classical galactosemia].

Related Articles [Diet treatment of classical galactosemia]. Orv Hetil. 2017 Nov;158(47):1864-1867 Authors: Kiss E, Balogh L, Reismann P Abstract Classical galactosemia is an inherited disorder of the carbohydrate metabolism, most often caused by the deficient activity of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase. Classical galactosemia presents in the neonatal period with life threatening illness after galactose is introduced in the diet. Symptoms and signs include poor feeding, vomiting, and diarrhea, weight loss, jaundice, hypotension, cataracts, hepatosplenomegaly, hepatocellular insufficiency, and encephalopathy. Since 1975 the testing for galactosemia is part of the neonatal screening program in Hungary. Affected newborns are recognized in the first days of their life, and special diet is introduced immediately. The therapy of galactosemia is the lactose-free and galactose-poor diet for life. As a result of the nationwide newborn screening and the lifelong medical therapy, early treatment with galactosemia can achieve a normal life without serious complications. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(47): 1864-1867. PMID: 29153024 [PubMed - in process]

A combination of quercetin and resveratrol reduces obesity in high-fat diet-fed rats by modulation of gut microbiota.

Related Articles A combination of quercetin and resveratrol reduces obesity in high-fat diet-fed rats by modulation of gut microbiota. Food Funct. 2017 Nov 20;: Authors: Zhao L, Zhang Q, Ma W, Tian F, Shen H, Zhou M Abstract Resveratrol and quercetin, widely found in foods and vegetables, are plant polyphenols reported to have a wide range of biological activities. Despite their limited bioavailabilities, both resveratrol and quercetin are known to exhibit anti-inflammation and anti-obesity effects. We hypothesized that gut microbiota may be a potential target for resveratrol and quercetin to prevent the development of obesity. The aim of this research was to confirm whether a combination of quercetin and resveratrol (CQR) could restore the gut microbiota dysbiosis induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). In this study, Wistar rats were divided into three groups: a normal diet (ND) group, a HFD group and a CQR group. The CQR group was treated with a HFD and administered with a combination of quercetin [30 mg per kg body weight (BW) per day] and resveratrol [15 mg per kg body weight (BW) per day] by oral gavage. At the end of 10 weeks, CQR reduced the body weight gain and visceral (epididymal, perirenal) adipose tissue weight. Moreover, CQR also reduced serum lipids, attenuated serum inflammatory markers [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1] and reversed serum biochemical parameters (adiponectin, insulin, leptin, etc.). Importantly, our results demonstrated that CQR could modulate the gut microbiota composition. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that CQR had an impact on gut microbiota, decreasing Firmicutes (P < 0.05) and the proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (P = 0.052). CQR also significantly inhibited the relative abundance of Desulfovibrionaceae (P < 0.01), Acidaminococcaceae (P < 0.05), Coriobacteriaceae (P < 0.05), Bilophila (P < 0.05), Lachnospiraceae (P < 0.05) and its genus Lachnoclostridium (P < 0.001), which were reported to be potentially related to diet-induced obesity. Moreover, compared with the HFD group, the relative abundance of Bacteroidales_S24-7_group (P < 0.01), Christensenellaceae (P < 0.001), Akkermansia (P < 0.01), Ruminococcaceae (P < 0.01) and its genera Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014 (P < 0.01), and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-005 (P < 0.01), which were reported to have an effect of relieving HFD-induced obesity, was markedly increased in the CQR group. Overall, these results indicated that administration of CQR may have beneficial effects on ameliorating HFD-induced obesity and reducing HFD-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis. PMID: 29152632 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Multidisciplinary Team-Based Obesity Treatment in Patients With Diabetes: Current Practices and the State of the Science.

Related Articles Multidisciplinary Team-Based Obesity Treatment in Patients With Diabetes: Current Practices and the State of the Science. Diabetes Spectr. 2017 Nov;30(4):244-249 Authors: Foster D, Sanchez-Collins S, Cheskin LJ Abstract IN BRIEF Rates of obesity and diabetes are growing, as are their costs. Because the two diseases share many key determinants, the paradigms for their treatment overlap. For both, optimal treatment involves a multidisciplinary team following the Chronic Care Model of health care delivery. Combined treatment programs that include 1) a low-calorie diet individualized to patients' preferences, 2) structured exercise that is also tailored to each patient, and 3) psychotherapy induce the largest weight changes in patients with diabetes. Although diet alone can achieve weight loss, exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy components can enhance the effects of dietary modification. A multidisciplinary team that includes a physician with expertise in pharmacotherapy, a nurse and/or nurse practitioner, a dietitian, an exercise physiologist, and a psychologist can provide a comprehensive weight loss program combining the most effective interventions from each discipline. PMID: 29151714 [PubMed]

Association of plasma phospholipid polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids with body mass index: Results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

Related Articles Association of plasma phospholipid polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids with body mass index: Results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 Nov 20;: Authors: Hastert TA, de Oliveira Otto MC, Lê-Scherban F, Steffen BT, Steffen LM, Tsai MY, Jacobs DR, Baylin A Abstract BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Previous research has focused on associations between dietary fat and body mass index (BMI), but the contributions of different types of fat to BMI remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to estimate whether plasma phospholipid omega-3 (n-3), omega-6 (n-6), or trans fatty acids are associated with BMI at baseline and with subsequent BMI changes over time; and whether total phospholipid n-6 or trans fatty acids modify any association between phospholipid n-3 and BMI. METHODS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal linear mixed models include 6 243 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Participants were 45-84 years old, had no history of cardiovascular disease at baseline (2000-2002), and were followed for up to 10 years. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids were measured using fasting plasma samples at baseline. Fully adjusted models include demographics; health behaviors; and other fatty acids (n-3, n-6, trans) as appropriate. RESULTS: In fully-adjusted models phospholipid n-3 fatty acid levels were inversely associated with baseline BMI (Ptrend<0.001). Baseline BMI was 1.14 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.57) kg/m(2) lower among participants with total n-3 values in the highest vs. the lowest quartiles, but was not associated with changes in BMI. Total phospholipid n-6 was positively associated with baseline BMI in partially- but not fully-adjusted models. No overall association was observed between fatty acid levels and changes in BMI. No clear association was observed between trans fatty acids and baseline BMI or BMI change. No effect modification in the association between phospholipid n-3 and baseline BMI or BMI change was observed by either phospholipid n-6 or trans fatty acids. CONCLUSION: Phospholipid total and specific n-3 fatty acid levels were inversely associated with BMI at baseline, while associations tended to be positive for total n-6 fatty acids. Significant associations between fatty acid levels and BMI changes were not observed.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 20 November 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.282. PMID: 29151597 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The compositional and metabolic responses of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) to a gradient of dietary fish oil and associated n-3 long-chain PUFA content.

Related Articles The compositional and metabolic responses of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) to a gradient of dietary fish oil and associated n-3 long-chain PUFA content. Br J Nutr. 2017 Nov 20;:1-13 Authors: Houston SJS, Karalazos V, Tinsley J, Betancor MB, Martin SAM, Tocher DR, Monroig O Abstract The replacement of fish oil (FO) with vegetable oil (VO) in feed formulations reduces the availability of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) to marine fish such as gilthead seabream. The aim of this study was to examine compositional and physiological responses to a dietary gradient of n-3 LC-PUFA. Six iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets (D1-D6) were fed to seabream, with the added oil being a blend of FO and VO to achieve a dietary gradient of n-3 LC-PUFA. Fish were sampled after 4 months feeding, to determine biochemical composition, tissue fatty acid concentrations and lipid metabolic gene expression. The results indicated a disturbance to lipid metabolism, with fat in the liver increased and fat deposits in the viscera reduced. Tissue fatty acid profiles were altered towards the fatty acid compositions of the diets. There was evidence of endogenous modification of dietary PUFA in the liver which correlated with the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (fads2). Expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (srebp1), fads2 and fatty acid synthase increased in the liver, whereas PPARα1 pathways appeared to be supressed by dietary VO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects in lipogenic genes appear to become measurable in D1-D3, which agrees with the weight gain data suggesting that disturbances to energy metabolism and lipogenesis may be related to performance differences. These findings suggested that suppression of β-oxidation and stimulation of srebp1-mediated lipogenesis may play a role in contributing toward steatosis in fish fed n-3 LC-PUFA deficient diets. PMID: 29151385 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Impact of risk factors for gestational diabetes (GDM) on pregnancy outcomes in women with GDM.

Related Articles Impact of risk factors for gestational diabetes (GDM) on pregnancy outcomes in women with GDM. J Endocrinol Invest. 2017 Nov 17;: Authors: Filardi T, Tavaglione F, Di Stasio M, Fazio V, Lenzi A, Morano S Abstract PURPOSE: In this study, we evaluated the impact of risk factors for gestational diabetes on clinical/biochemical parameters and maternal/fetal outcomes. METHODS: One hundred eighty-three (n 183) women (age 33.8 ± 5.5 years, 59% Caucasians, 41% non-Caucasians) with gestational diabetes were included in the study. Anamnestic information, anthropometric and laboratory parameters, and maternal and fetal outcomes at delivery were collected. RESULTS: Insulin therapy prevalence was higher in Asians vs Caucasians (p = 0.006), despite lower pre-pregnancy BMI in Asians (p = 0.0001) and in pre-pregnancy overweight vs normal weight patients (p = 0.04). Insulin-treated patients had higher fasting OGTT glucose than patients on diet therapy (p = 0.003). In multivariate analysis, Asian ethnicity, age ≥ 35 years and pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) were independent predictors of insulin therapy. Cesarean section occurred more in women aged ≥ 35 years than < 35 years (p = 0.02). Duration of pregnancy and age showed inverse correlation (r - 0.3 p = 0.013). Week of delivery was lower in patients ≥ 35 years vs patients < 35 years (p = 0.013). Fasting OGTT glucose was higher in overweight than in normal weight patients (p = 0.016). 1-h OGTT glucose was lower in obese vs normal weight (p = 0.03) and overweight patients (p = 0.03). Prevalence of prior gestational diabetes was higher in overweight/obese women (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Ethnicity, age, and BMI have the heaviest impact on pregnancy outcomes. PMID: 29150756 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Xenohormesis in early life: New avenues of research to explore anti-aging strategies through the maternal diet.

Related Articles Xenohormesis in early life: New avenues of research to explore anti-aging strategies through the maternal diet. Med Hypotheses. 2017 Nov;109:126-130 Authors: de Medina P Abstract Aging is a progressive internal physiological deterioration of the organism, leading to the occurrence of age-related lethal diseases. It has become a major societal challenge to understand the processes that drive aging and to develop rational pharmacological agents and dietary approaches to fight against age-related deterioration and diseases. Interestingly, several lines of evidence highlight an influence of the developmental period on the risk of age-related diseases later in life. This field is known as the developmental origins of health and disease. Following this logic, studying the modification of maternal diet during early life may provide innovative new anti-aging approaches. Nutritional and psychological stresses during gestation are associated with poorer offspring health conditions in late life, and must be avoided during pregnancy. Besides these recommendations, very little has been published about the possible use of maternal diet to program offspring for healthy aging and an extended lifespan. Such health benefits may be provided by different foreign molecules, and particularly the phytochemicals produced by stressed plants, or xenohormetins. The xenohormesis hypothesis proposes that xenohormetins are signals of environmental change and trigger a beneficial adaptive response in individuals who consume them. No studies to date have investigated whether the consumption of stressed plants during pregnancy and lactation could provide chemical cues that impact early life programming and thus influence the future health and lifespan of offspring. Investigating the effect of xenohormesis in early life will involve adding edible plants exposed to different stressors (i.e. UV light, heat, ozone, etc.) to maternal diet and the exposure of offspring to this xenohormetin-enriched maternal diet at different periods of their prenatal life. The hypothesis proposed in this article is a potential tool to decipher the possible impact of xenohormesis during early life, and paving the way toward an innovative maternal diet that ensures the healthy aging of the progeny. PMID: 29150271 [PubMed - in process]