Cigarette smoke promotes COPD by activating platelet-activating factor receptor and inducing neutrophil autophagic death in mice.
Oncotarget. 2017 Sep 26;8(43):74720-74735
Authors: Lv XX, Liu SS, Li K, Cui B, Liu C, Hu ZW
Neutrophils are the most important effector cells during the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although neutrophil elastase is critical in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung parenchyma, the mechanism by which CS triggers elastase release from neutrophils remains unclear. Here we report that CS induction of autophagy in neutrophils by activating platelet- activating factor receptor (PAFR) promotes COPD progression in mouse. We found that the dead neutrophils were increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from CS-exposed mice. Blocking PAFR suppressed the CS-induced autophagy in neutrophils, protected neutrophils from death, and reduced elastase release. Mechanistically, CS enhanced ROS production and High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression through activation of PAFR. The elevated HMGB1 interacted with beclin1, which promoted the dissociation of Bcl-2 from beclin1 and the assembly of autophagy core complex. Moreover, the antagonism of PAFR by rupatadine, a prescription PAFR inhibitor, protected against the development of emphysema, and reduced the autophagic death of neutrophils after CS exposure. These results suggest that CS contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD partly by inducing a PAFR-dependent autophagic death of neutrophils. Therefore, PAFR may be a therapeutic target for COPD and inhibition of PAFR may provide potential therapeutic benefits in the treatment of patients with COPD.
PMID: 29088819 [PubMed]
Effects of Guajol(®) ointment synthesized from medicinal smoke condensate of jennet feces on burn wound healing on Wistar rat.
Vet Res Forum. 2017;8(3):215-221
Authors: Safarpoor Dehkordi F, Tirgir F, Valizadeh Y
Application of smoke condensate derived from an indirect heating of jennet feces (Sargin) had been recommended by Iranian ancient scientists as a therapeutic agent. The present study was done to evaluate the healing effects of Guajol(®) ointment on burn wound in rat. The Guajol(®) ointment was prepared from the smoke condensate of Sargin samples. Wistar Rats (n = 50) were randomized into six groups including normal saline, silver sulfadiazine and 1.25%, 2.50%, 5.00% and 10.00% concentrations of Guajol(®) ointment. Under general anesthesia, dorsum of the rats were shaved and burn wounds were created using hot plate. Area of wounds and percent of healing were measured. Normal saline had the highest area of wound, followed by 1.25% Guajol(®) and silver-sulfadiazine groups. The group treated with 5.00% Guajol(®) showed the highest percent of healing. Percent of healing in NS, SSD and 5.00% Guajol(®) ointment groups on day 21 were 38.47%, 75.00% and 98.51%, respectively. Microscopic examination of wounds sections of rats treated with 5.00% Guajol(®) showed more collagen fibers and fibroblasts cells on day 7. Wounds of 5.00% Guajol(®) treated group was covered with healthy epithelial and epidermis tissues and hair follicles on day 21. This was the first report of using Sargin to heal the burn wound of rat. Further studies are recommended for investigation of the other effects of Guajol(®) ointment and its possible application in medicine.
PMID: 29085609 [PubMed]