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Diacylglycerols as biomarkers of sustained immune activation in Proteinopathies associated with dementia.

Related Articles Diacylglycerols as biomarkers of sustained immune activation in Proteinopathies associated with dementia. Clin Chim Acta. 2017 Nov 13;: Authors: Wood PL, Cebak JE, Woltjer RL Abstract Cognitive decline is a devastating clinical condition, heavily correlated with age progression. In the cases of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Lewy body disease, the common neuropathologies are proteinopathies and neuroinflammation. Herein, we review current lipidomics findings and conclude that brain and circulating diacylglycerols represent biomarkers of this ongoing sustained immune response, presumably involving microglia. We further hypothesize that a logical next step will be to evaluate biomarkers of immune activation in a cohort of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and subsequently attempt to provide therapeutic intervention with anti-inflammatory therapy in MCI patients with immune activation. Although this is an urgent and theoretically safe therapeutic trial, it will likely necessitate government support. PMID: 29146478 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Outcomes by molecular subtype after accelerated partial breast irradiation using single-entry catheters.

Related Articles Outcomes by molecular subtype after accelerated partial breast irradiation using single-entry catheters. Brachytherapy. 2017 Nov 13;: Authors: Saini A, Kuske R, Quiet C, Pantoja C, Reed D, Zannis V Abstract PURPOSE: Tumor biology is being recognized as an important indicator of prognosis and risk of locoregional recurrence. Here, we determine actuarial recurrence rates by approximated molecular subtype for women treated with single-entry catheter accelerated partial breast irradiation (sAPBI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: One thousand four hundred eighty-six women with invasive cancer having known ER, PR, and Her2 status and at least 1-year of followup were treated using MammoSite, Contura, or SAVI sAPBI from 2002 to 2014 at our institution. Actuarial recurrence rates were determined for the following four approximated molecular subtypes using the Kaplan-Meier method: luminal A (n = 1081), luminal B (n = 164), Her2 (n = 123), and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC; n = 118). RESULTS: With a median followup time of 3.3 years (range 1-13.6 years), the 5-year in-breast tumor recurrence rate was 2.6% overall, 2.1% for luminal A, 1.5% for luminal B, 4.9% for Her2, and 5.4% for TNBC. Luminal A and B subtypes, as compared with the more aggressive Her2 and TNBC subtypes combined, demonstrated lower 5-year in-breast tumor recurrence (2.1% vs. 5.1%, p = 0.021). The 5-year regional nodal recurrence rate was 1.4% overall, 1.4% for luminal A, 0% for luminal B, 1% for Her2, and 4.2% for TNBC. The 5-year locoregional control is 97.3% for luminal breast cancers and 93.8% for the more aggressive Her2 and TNBC subtypes collectively. CONCLUSIONS: Luminal cancers demonstrated excellent 5-year locoregional control with sAPBI. Although caution should be used when treating patients with the more aggressive Her2 and TNBC subtypes, these subtypes have demonstrated higher LRR with mastectomy and whole-breast irradiation. Further randomized comparisons are needed to determine the optimal treatment for these higher risk patients. PMID: 29146102 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Rapid Diagnostic Testing of Hospitalized Malawian Children Reveals Opportunities for Improved HIV Diagnosis and Treatment.

Related Articles Rapid Diagnostic Testing of Hospitalized Malawian Children Reveals Opportunities for Improved HIV Diagnosis and Treatment. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Oct 16;: Authors: Madaline TF, Hochman SE, Seydel KB, Liomba A, Saidi A, Matebule G, Mowrey WB, O'Hare B, Milner DA, Kim K Abstract Recent World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-infected people; previously CD4+ T lymphocyte quantification (CD4 count) or clinical staging determined eligibility for children ≥ 5 years old in low- and middle-income countries. We examined positive predictive value (PPV) of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) algorithm and ART eligibility for hospitalized children with newly diagnosed HIV infection. We enrolled 363 hospitalized Malawian children age 2 months to 16 years with two serial positive HIV RDT from 2013 to 2015. Children aged ≤ 18 months whose nucleic acid testing was negative or unavailable were later excluded from the analysis (N = 16). If RNA PCR was undetectable, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and western blot (WB) were performed. Those with negative or discordant EIA and WB were considered HIV negative and excluded from further analysis (N = 6). ART eligibility was assessed using age, CD4 count, and clinical HIV stage. Among 150 patients with HIV RNA PCR results, 15 had undetectable HIV RNA. Of those, EIA and WB were positive in nine patients and negative or discordant in six patients. PPV of serial RDT was 90% versus RNA PCR alone and 96% versus combined RNA PCR, EIA, and WB. Of all patients aged ≥ 5 years, 8.9% were ineligible for ART under previous WHO guidelines. Improved HIV testing algorithms are needed for accurate diagnosis of HIV infection in children as prevalence of pediatric HIV declines. Universal treatment will significantly increase the numbers of older children who qualify for ART. PMID: 29141709 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]