Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Vegetarian


Association of vegetarian diet with inflammatory biomarkers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Abstract Title: Association of vegetarian diet with inflammatory biomarkers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Abstract Source: Public Health Nutr. 2017 Aug 24:1-9. Epub 2017 Aug 24. PMID: 28836492 Abstract Author(s): Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Nick Bellissimo, Julia O Totosy de Zepetnek, Mohammad Hossein Rouhani Article Affiliation: Fahimeh Haghighatdoost Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Vegetarian diets contain various anti-inflammatory components. We aimed to investigate the effects of vegetarianism on inflammatory biomarkers when compared with omnivores. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Literature search was conducted in Science Direct, Proquest, MEDLINE and Google Scholar up to June 2016. Summary estimates and corresponding 95 % CI were derived via the DerSimonian and Laird method using random effects, subgroup analyses were run to find the source of heterogeneity and a fixed-effect model examined between-subgroup heterogeneity. SUBJECTS: Studies were included if they evaluated effects of any type of vegetarianism compared with omnivores on circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers. No restriction was made in terms of language or the date of study publications. RESULTS: Eighteen articles were included. Pooled effect size showed no difference in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in vegetarians v. omnivores (Hedges' g=-0·15; 95 % CI -0·35, 0·05), with high heterogeneity (I 2=75·6 %, P<0·01). A subgroup analysis by minimum duration of vegetarianism showed that a minimum duration of 2 years vegetarianism was associated with lower hs-CRP levels v. omnivores (Hedges' g=-0·29; 95 % CI -0·59, 0·01), with moderate heterogeneity (I 2=68·9 %, P<0·01). No significant effect was found in studies using a minimum duration of 6 months of vegetarianism, with low heterogeneity. Vegetarianism was associated with increased IL-6 concentrations (0·21 pg/ml; 95 % CI 0·18, 0·25), with no heterogeneity (I 2=0·0 %, P=0·60). CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis provides evidence that vegetarianism is associated with lower serum concentrations of hs-CRP when individuals follow a vegetarian diet for at least 2 years. Further research is necessary to draw appropriate conclusions regarding potential associations between vegetarianism and IL-6 levels. A vegetarian diet might be a useful approach to manage inflammaging in the long term. Article Published Date : Aug 23, 2017

A plant-based diet for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Abstract Title: A plant-based diet for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Abstract Source: J Geriatr Cardiol. 2017 May ;14(5):342-354. PMID: 28630614 Abstract Author(s): Michelle McMacken, Sapana Shah Article Affiliation: Michelle McMacken Abstract: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising worldwide, especially in older adults. Diet and lifestyle, particularly plant-based diets, are effective tools for type 2 diabetes prevention and management. Plant-based diets are eating patterns that emphasize legumes, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds and discourage most or all animal products. Cohort studies strongly support the role of plant-based diets, and food and nutrient components of plant-based diets, in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. Evidence from observational and interventional studies demonstrates the benefits of plant-based diets in treating type 2 diabetes and reducing key diabetes-related macrovascular and microvascular complications. Optimal macronutrient ratios for preventing and treating type 2 diabetes are controversial; the focus should instead be on eating patterns and actual foods. However, the evidence does suggest that the type and source of carbohydrate (unrefined versus refined), fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated versus saturated and trans), and protein (plant versus animal) play a major role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Multiple potential mechanisms underlie the benefits of a plant-based diet in ameliorating insulin resistance, including promotion of a healthy body weight, increases in fiber and phytonutrients, food-microbiome interactions, and decreases in saturated fat, advanced glycation endproducts, nitrosamines, and heme iron. Article Published Date : Apr 30, 2017

Healing of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Case Report

Abstract Title: [Healing of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Case Report]. Abstract Source: Complement Med Res. 2017 ;24(3):175-181. Epub 2017 Jun 12. PMID: 28641283 Abstract Author(s): Inge Mangelsdorf, Harald Walach, Joachim Mutter Article Affiliation: Inge Mangelsdorf Abstract: BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease leading to death within 3-5 years in most cases. New approaches to treating this disease are needed. Here, we report a successful therapy. CASE REPORT: In a 49-year-old male patient suffering from muscle weakness and fasciculations, progressive muscular atrophy, a variant of ALS, was diagnosed after extensive examinations ruling out other diseases. Due to supposed mercury exposure from residual amalgam, the patient's teeth were restored. Then, the patient received sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropanesulfate (DMPS; overall 86× 250 mg in 3 years) in combination with α-lipoic acid and followed by selenium. In addition, he took vitamins and micronutrients and kept a vegetarian diet. The excretion of metals was monitored in the urine. The success of the therapy was followed by scoring muscle weakness and fasciculations and finally by electromyography (EMG) of the affected muscles. First improvements occurred after the dental restorations. Two months after starting therapy with DMPS, the mercury level in the urine was increased (248.4 µg/g creatinine). After 1.5 years, EMG confirmed the absence of typical signs of ALS. In the course of 3 years, the patient recovered completely. CONCLUSIONS: The therapy described here is a promising approach to treating some kinds of motor neuron disease and merits further evaluation in rigorous trials. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

Reduced subclinical carotid vascular disease and arterial stiffness in vegetarian men: The CARVOS Study.

Abstract Title: Reduced subclinical carotid vascular disease and arterial stiffness in vegetarian men: The CARVOS Study. Abstract Source: Int J Cardiol. 2016 Dec 20. Epub 2016 Dec 20. PMID: 28062141 Abstract Author(s): Julio Acosta-Navarro, Luiza Antoniazzi, Adriana Midori Oki, Maria Carlos Bonfim, Valeria Hong, Pedro Acosta-Cardenas, Celia Strunz, Eleonora Brunoro, Marcio Hiroshi Miname, Wilson Salgado Filho, Luiz Aparecido Bortolotto, Raul D Santos Article Affiliation: Julio Acosta-Navarro Abstract: BACKGROUND: Dietary habits play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. The objective of this study was to verify if vegetarian (VEG) diet could be related a better profile of subclinical vascular disease evaluated by arterial stiffness and functional and structural properties of carotid arteries, compared to omnivorous (OMN) diet. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 44 VEG and 44 OMN apparently healthy men≥35years of age, in order to not have confounding risk factors of subclinical atherosclerosis, were assessed for anthropometric data, blood pressure, blood lipids, glucose, C reactive protein (CRP), and arterial stiffness determined by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Also, carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) and distensibility were evaluated. RESULTS: VEG men had lower body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting serum total cholesterol, LDL and non-HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, glucose and glycated hemoglobin values in comparison with OMN individuals (all p values<0.05). Markers of vascular structure and function were different between VEG and OMN: PWV 7.1±0.8m/s vs. 7.7±0.9m/s (p<0.001); c-IMT 593±94 vs. 661±128μm (p=0.003); and relative carotid distensibility 6.39±1.7 vs. 5.72±1.8% (p=0.042), respectively. After a multivariate linear regression analysis, a VEG diet was independently and negatively associated with PWV (p value 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: A VEG diet is associated with a more favorable cardiovascular diseases biomarker profile and better vascular structural and functional parameters. Article Published Date : Dec 19, 2016

Urinary concentrations of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in residents of a vegetarian community.

Abstract Title: Urinary concentrations of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in residents of a vegetarian community. Abstract Source: Environ Int. 2016 Nov ;96:34-40. Epub 2016 Aug 31. PMID: 27588700 Abstract Author(s): T Berman, T Göen, L Novack, L Beacher, L Grinshpan, D Segev, K Tordjman Article Affiliation: T Berman Abstract: Few population studies have measured urinary levels of pesticides in individuals with vegan, vegetarian, or organic diets. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether a vegan/vegetarian diet was associated with increased exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, and to evaluate the impact of organic consumption on pesticide exposure in vegans and vegetarians. In the current pilot study conducted in 2013-2014, we collected spot urine samples and detailed 24h recall dietary data in 42 adult residents of Amirim, a vegetarian community in Northern Israel. We measured urinary levels of non-specific organophosphate pesticide metabolites (dialkylphosphates, (DAPs)) and specific metabolites of the current-use pesticides chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy)), propoxur (-isopropoxyphenol (IPPX)), and carbaryl (1-naphthol). Six DAP metabolites were detected in between 67 and 100% of urine samples, with highest geometric mean concentrations for dimethylphosphate (19.2μg/g). Creatinine-adjusted median concentrations of total DAPs and of TCPy were significantly higher in Amirim residents compared to the general Jewish population in Israel (0.29μmol/g compared to 0.16, p<0.05 for DAPs and 4.32μg/g compared to 2.34μg/g, p<0.05 for TCPy). Within Amirim residents, we observed a positive association between vegetable intake and urinary TCPy levels (rho=0.47, p<0.05) and lower median total dimethyl phosphate levels in individuals reporting that>25% of the produce they consume is organic (0.065μmol/L compared to 0.22, p<0.05). Results from this pilot study indicate relatively high levels of urinary organophosphate pesticide metabolite concentrations in residents of a vegetarian community, a positive association between vegetable intake and urinary levels of a chlorpyrifos specific metabolite, and lower levels of total dimethyl phosphate in individuals reporting higher intake of organic produce. Results suggest that consumption of organic produce may offer some protection from increased exposure to organophosphate pesticide residues in vegetarians. Article Published Date : Oct 31, 2016
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Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Vegetarian

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Associations between Nut Consumption and Health Vary between Omnivores, Vegetarians, and Vegans.

Related Articles Associations between Nut Consumption and Health Vary between Omnivores, Vegetarians, and Vegans. Nutrients. 2017 Nov 06;9(11): Authors: Brown RC, Gray AR, Tey SL, Chisholm A, Burley V, Greenwood DC, Cade J Abstract Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced risk factors for chronic disease; however, most population-based studies lack consideration of effect modification by dietary pattern. The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) provides an ideal opportunity to examine relationships between nut consumption and chronic disease risk factors in a large sample with diverse dietary patterns. Nut and nutrient intake from 34,831 women was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among self-identified omnivores, vegetarians and vegans. In this cross-sectional analysis, higher nut consumption was associated with lower body weight (difference between highest and lowest consumption categories from adjusted model: 6.1 kg; 95% CI: 4.7, 7.6) body mass index (BMI, 2.4 units difference; 95% CI: 1.9, 2.9), and waist circumference (2.6 cm difference; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.8) (all p for linear trend < 0.001). Higher nut consumption was also associated with reduced prevalence of high cholesterol and high blood pressure; having a history of heart attack, diabetes and gallstones; and markers of diet quality (all adjusted p for linear trend ≤ 0.011). Higher nut consumption appeared overall to be associated with greater benefits amongst omnivores compared to vegetarians and vegans. Findings support existing literature around beneficial effects of nut consumption and suggest that benefits may be larger among omnivores. Nut promotion strategies may have the highest population impact by specifically targeting this group. PMID: 29113145 [PubMed - in process]