Music-Induced Analgesia in Chronic Pain Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Pain Physician. 2017 Nov;20(7):597-610
Authors: Garza-Villarreal EA, Pando V, Vuust P, Parsons C
BACKGROUND: Music is increasingly used as an adjuvant for the management of chronic pain (CP), as it is non-invasive, inexpensive, and patients usually report positive experiences with it. However, little is known about its clinical efficacy in chronic pain patients.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the effect of music as an adjuvant for chronic pain, as well as to identify characteristics of music interventions associated with positive clinical outcomes.
STUDY DESIGN: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigated randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adult patients that reported any type of music intervention for chronic pain, chosen by the researcher or patient, lasting for any duration. Searches were performed using PsycINFO, Scopus, and PubMed for RCTs published until the end of May 2016. The primary outcome was reduction in self-reported pain using a standardized pain measurement instrument, reported post-intervention. The secondary outcomes were: quality of life measures, depression, anxiety, and related measures.
METHODS: The study was pre-registered with PROSPERO (CRD42016039837), and the meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 (The Nordic Cochrane Centre for The Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark). We identified 768 titles and abstracts, and we included 14 RTCs that fulfilled our criteria. The sample size of the studies varied between 25 and 200 patients.
RESULTS: We found that music reduced self-reported chronic pain and depressive symptoms. We also found that music had a greater effect when the patient chose the music, compared to when the researcher chose it.
LIMITATIONS: The sample size of RCTs was small and sometimes with different outcome measures. There was high heterogeneity associated with pooled estimates.
CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that music may be beneficial as an adjuvant for chronic pain patients, as it reduces self-reported pain and its common comorbidities. Importantly, the analgesic effect of music appears higher with self-chosen over researcher-chosen music.
KEY WORDS: Pain, music, analgesia, music-induced analgesia, chronic pain, meta-analysis, systematic review, therapy.
PMID: 29149141 [PubMed - in process]
Drugs of Abuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances at Outdoor Music Festivals in Colorado.
Subst Use Misuse. 2017 Nov 17;:1-9
Authors: Fox J, Smith A, Yale A, Chow C, Alaswad E, Cushing T, Monte AA
BACKGROUND: Drugs of abuse (DOA) are widely used in the United States and are ubiquitous at outdoor music festivals. Attendees at music festivals are at high-risk for novel psychoactive substance (NPS) use, which is becoming more prevalent worldwide. No U.S. studies have employed an qualitative approach to investigate the etiologies of both traditional DOA and NPS use amongst music festival attendees.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to improve understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of festival attendees using NPS and DOA.
METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews of 171 attendees during the Sonic Bloom and Arise music festivals in Colorado in 2015 and 2016. Discrete variables were summarized with descriptive statistics. The anonymous, multi-domain interview documented the knowledge, attitudes beliefs, and practices underlying DOA use, which were analyzed with qualitative methods.
RESULTS: We enrolled 171 participants that endorsed DOA use at the festivals. Most were experienced DOA users, who perceived minimal risks associated with DOA and NPS use. Nearly all unanimously reported normalization of DOA at music festivals. Participants popularly cited empathogenic, entactogenic, and entheogenic effects of DOA as their primary motivations for use. NPS use was endorsed by 39.8% (n = 68) of respondents, all of whom identified as being experienced DOA users.
CONCLUSIONS: This population of novel psychoactive substance users is primarily composed of experienced drug users that endorsed use because of low cost, minimal perceived risk, accessibility, and normalization of drug use at music festivals.
PMID: 29148866 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Thermal expansion of Pd-based metallic glasses by ab initio methods and high energy X-ray diffraction.
Sci Rep. 2017 Nov 16;7(1):15744
Authors: Evertz S, Music D, Schnabel V, Bednarcik J, Schneider JM
Metallic glasses are promising structural materials due to their unique properties. For structural applications and processing the coefficient of thermal expansion is an important design parameter. Here we demonstrate that predictions of the coefficient of thermal expansion for metallic glasses by density functional theory based ab initio calculations are efficient both with respect to time and resources. The coefficient of thermal expansion is predicted by an ab initio based method utilising the Debye-Grüneisen model for a Pd-based metallic glass, which exhibits a pronounced medium range order. The predictions are critically appraised by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and excellent agreement is observed. Through this combined theoretical and experimental research strategy, we show the feasibility to predict the coefficient of thermal expansion from the ground state structure of a metallic glass until the onset of structural changes. Thereby, we provide a method to efficiently probe a potentially vast number of metallic glass alloying combinations regarding thermal expansion.
PMID: 29146969 [PubMed - in process]
Positive valence music restores executive control over sustained attention.
PLoS One. 2017;12(11):e0186231
Authors: Baldwin CL, Lewis BA
Music sometimes improves performance in sustained attention tasks. But the type of music employed in previous investigations has varied considerably, which can account for equivocal results. Progress has been hampered by lack of a systematic database of music varying in key characteristics like tempo and valence. The aims of this study were to establish a database of popular music varying along the dimensions of tempo and valence and to examine the impact of music varying along these dimensions on restoring attentional resources following performance of a sustained attention to response task (SART) vigil. Sixty-nine participants rated popular musical selections that varied in valence and tempo to establish a database of four musical types: fast tempo positive valence, fast tempo negative valence, slow tempo positive valence, and slow tempo negative valence. A second group of 89 participants performed two blocks of the SART task interspersed with either no break or a rest break consisting of 1 of the 4 types of music or silence. Presenting positive valence music (particularly of slow tempo) during an intermission between two successive blocks of the SART significantly decreased miss rates relative to negative valence music or silence. Results support an attentional restoration theory of the impact of music on sustained attention, rather than arousal theory and demonstrate a means of restoring sustained attention. Further, the results establish the validity of a music database that will facilitate further investigations of the impact of music on performance.
PMID: 29145395 [PubMed - in process]