Exercise testing in patients with diaphragm paresis.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2017 Nov 16;:
Authors: Bonnevie T, Gravier FE, Ducrocq A, Debeaumont D, Viacroze C, Cuvelier A, Muir JF, Tardif C
PURPOSE: Diaphragm paresis (DP) is characterized by abnormalities of respiratory muscle function. However, the impact of DP on exercise capacity is not well known. This study was performed to assess exercise tolerance in patients with DP and to determine whether inspiratory muscle function was related to exercise capacity, ventilatory pattern and cardiovascular function during exercise.
METHODS: This retrospective study included patients with DP who underwent both diaphragmatic force measurements, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET).
RESULTS: Fourteen patients were included. Dyspnea was the main symptom limiting exertion (86%). Exercise capacity was slightly reduced (median VO2peak: 80% [74.5%-90.5%]), mostly due to ventilatory limitation. Diaphragm and overall inspiratory muscle function were correlated with exercise ventilation. Moreover, overall inspiratory muscle function was related with oxygen consumption (r=0.61) and maximal workload (r=0.68).
CONCLUSIONS: DP decreases aerobic capacity due to ventilatory limitation. Diaphragm function is correlated with exercise ventilation whereas overall inspiratory muscle function is correlated with both exercise capacity and ventilation suggesting the importance of the accessory inspiratory muscles during exercise for patients with DP. Further larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.
PMID: 29155335 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Respiratory muscle strength is decreased after maximal incremental exercise in trained runners and cyclists.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2017 Nov 18;248:25-30
Authors: Oueslati F, Berriri A, Boone J, Ahmaidi S
The respiratory muscle fatigue seems to be able to limit exercise performance and may influence the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) or maximum aerobic work rate during maximal incremental test. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether maximal incremental exercise decreases respiratory muscle strength. We hypothesized that respiratory muscle strength (maximal pressure) will decrease after maximal incremental exercise to exhaustion. 36 runners and 23 cyclists completed a maximal incremental test on a treadmill or a cycle ergometer with continuous monitoring of expired gases. Maximal inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressure measurements were taken at rest and post- exercise. At rest, the MIP and MEP were 140±25 and 172±27 in runners vs. 115±26 and 146±33 in cyclists (p<0.05 between groups, respectively). The rest values of MIP and MEP were correlated to the V̇O2peak in all athletes, r=0.34, p<0.01 and r=0.36, p<0.01, respectively. At exhaustion, the MIP and MEP decreased significantly post- test by 13±7% and 13±5% in runners vs. 17±11% and 15±10% in cyclists (p>0.05), respectively. Our results suggest that respiratory muscle strength is decreased following maximal incremental exercise in trained runners and cyclists.
PMID: 29155334 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Trimetazidine restores the positive adaptation to exercise training by mitigating statin-induced skeletal muscle injury.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017 Nov 19;:
Authors: Song M, Chen FF, Li YH, Zhang L, Wang F, Qin RR, Wang ZH, Zhong M, Tang MX, Zhang W, Han L
BACKGROUND: Exercise rehabilitation is demonstrated to improve the prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Statins, as the key medicine to lower cholesterol in CHD, result in skeletal muscle injury and impair exercise training adaptation. Energy metabolism dysfunction is identified as the potential mechanism underlying statin-induced skeletal muscle injury. In this study, we investigated the effects of the metabolic modulator trimetazidine on skeletal muscle energy metabolism and statin-associated exercise intolerance.
METHODS: High-fat fed apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-) ) mice were given aerobic exercise and administrated simvastatin, trimetazidine, or simvastatin plus trimetazidine by gavage. Exercise capacity was evaluated at the end of the treatment by hanging grid test, forelimb grip strength, and running tolerance test. Plasma glucose, lipid, and creatine kinase concentrations were measured at the end of the treatment. After sacrifice, gastrocnemii were stored for assessment of muscle morphology and fibre type. Energy metabolism was estimated by plasma lactic acid concentration, ragged red fibres, and glycogen stores. Activities of mitochondrial complex III, citrate synthase activity, and membrane potential were measured to assess mitochondrial function. Oxidative stress was also evaluated by superoxide in mitochondria, superoxide dismutase activity, and glutathione redox state.
RESULTS: In high-fat fed ApoE(-/-) mice, exercise training had no effect on lipid concentrations. Lower lipid concentrations with increased creatine kinase were observed with additional simvastatin treatment. Exercise capacity increased significantly in response to exercise training alone but was blunted by the addition of simvastatin. Similarly, cross-sectional area of muscle fibres and the proportion of slow-twitch fibres increased in the exercise group but decreased in the simvastatin plus exercise group. Additionally, simvastatin increased centronucleated fibres and induced energy metabolism dysfunction by inhibiting complex III activity and thus promoted oxidative stress in gastrocnemius. We demonstrated that trimetazidine could reverse simvastatin-induced exercise intolerance and muscle damages. We also found the ability of trimetazidine in restoration of muscle fibre hypertrophy and facilitating fast-to-slow type shift. The energy metabolism dysfunction and oxidative stress in gastrocnemii were rescued by trimetazidine.
CONCLUSIONS: Trimetazidine alleviated statin-related skeletal muscle injury by restoration of oxidative phenotype and increasing fibre cross-sectional areas in response to exercise training. Correspondingly, the exercise training adaptation were improved in high-fat fed ApoE(-/-) mice. Moreover, trimetazidine is able to exert its positive effects without affecting the beneficial lipid-lowering properties of the statins. Thus, trimetazidine could be prescribed to remedy the undesirable statins-induced exercise intolerance during cardiac rehabilitation in patients with CHD.
PMID: 29152896 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Seasonal influence on adherence to and effects of an interval walking training program on sedentary female college students in Japan.
Int J Biometeorol. 2017 Nov 17;:
Authors: Tanabe A, Masuki S, Nemoto KI, Nose H
Habitual exercise training is recommended to young people for their health promotion, but adherence may be influenced by atmospheric temperature (T a ) if performed outdoors. We compared the adherence to and the effects of a home-based interval walking training (IWT) program on sedentary female college students between winter and summer. For summer training over 176 days, 48 subjects (18-22 years old) were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (CNTsummer, n = 24), which maintained a sedentary lifestyle as before, and the IWT group (IWTsummer, n = 24), which performed IWT while energy expenditure was monitored by accelerometry. For winter training over 133 days, another group of 47 subjects (18-24 years old) was randomly divided into CNTwinter (n = 24) and IWTwinter (n = 23), as in summer. The peak T a per day was 26 ± 6 °C (SD) (range of 9-35 °C) in summer, much higher than 7 ± 5 °C (range of - 3-20 °C) in winter (P < 0.001). During a ~ 50-day vacation period, participants walked 2.1 ± 0.3 (SE) days/week in IWTsummer, less than 4.2 ± 0.3 days/week in IWTwinter (P < 0.001), with half of the energy expenditure/week for fast walking during the winter vacation (P < 0.02), whereas both IWT groups walked ~ 2 days/week during a school period (P > 0.8). After training, the peak aerobic capacity and knee flexion force increased in IWTwinter (P < 0.01) but not in CNTwinter (P > 0.3). Conversely, these parameters decreased in the summer groups. Thus, the adherence to and effects of IWT on sedentary female college students in Japan decreased in summer at least partially due to a high T a .
PMID: 29150762 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]