Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION

NCBI pubmed

Natural Dietary Pigments: Potential Mediators against Hepatic Damage Induced by Over-The-Counter Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Drugs.

Related Articles Natural Dietary Pigments: Potential Mediators against Hepatic Damage Induced by Over-The-Counter Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Drugs. Nutrients. 2018 Jan 24;10(2): Authors: González-Ponce HA, Rincón-Sánchez AR, Jaramillo-Juárez F, Moshage H Abstract Over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics are among the most widely prescribed and purchased drugs around the world. Most analgesics, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetaminophen, are metabolized in the liver. The hepatocytes are responsible for drug metabolism and detoxification. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are phase I enzymes expressed mainly in hepatocytes and they account for ≈75% of the metabolism of clinically used drugs and other xenobiotics. These metabolic reactions eliminate potentially toxic compounds but, paradoxically, also result in the generation of toxic or carcinogenic metabolites. Cumulative or overdoses of OTC analgesic drugs can induce acute liver failure (ALF) either directly or indirectly after their biotransformation. ALF is the result of massive death of hepatocytes induced by oxidative stress. There is an increased interest in the use of natural dietary products as nutritional supplements and/or medications to prevent or cure many diseases. The therapeutic activity of natural products may be associated with their antioxidant capacity, although additional mechanisms may also play a role (e.g., anti-inflammatory actions). Dietary antioxidants such as flavonoids, betalains and carotenoids play a preventive role against OTC analgesics-induced ALF. In this review, we will summarize the pathobiology of OTC analgesic-induced ALF and the use of natural pigments in its prevention and therapy. PMID: 29364842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

EPA + DHA supplementation reduces PMN activation in microenvironment of chronic venous leg ulcers: A randomized, double-blind, controlled study.

Related Articles EPA + DHA supplementation reduces PMN activation in microenvironment of chronic venous leg ulcers: A randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Wound Repair Regen. 2017 08;25(4):680-690 Authors: McDaniel JC, Szalacha L, Sales M, Roy S, Chafee S, Parinandi N Abstract Sustained high levels of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and PMN-derived proteases in the microenvironment of chronic venous leg ulcers (CVLUs) are linked to chronic inflammation and delayed healing. Uncontrolled PMN activity eventually destroys newly developed tissue and degrades critical growth factors. The bioactive components of fish oil (n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) have strong inflammation-resolving actions and have been shown to assuage PMN activity, but have not been tested in CVLU patients. This randomized controlled study compared the effectiveness of oral EPA + DHA therapy to a placebo for reducing PMN activation in CVLU microenvironments. At Days 0, 28, and 56, markers of PMNs (CD15) and activated PMNs (CD66b), and levels of PMN-derived proteases human neutrophil elastase and matrix metalloproteinase-8 were measured in CVLU fluid from patients receiving standard compression therapy and (1) EPA + DHA therapy (n = 16) or (2) placebo (n = 19). By Day 56, the EPA + DHA Group had a significantly lower percentage of CD66b+ cells in CVLU fluid compared to Day 0 (p = 0.02) and to Day 28 (p = 0.05). Importantly, there were downward trends in levels of both matrix metalloproteinase-8 and human neutrophil elastase over time in the EPA + DHA Group, which also demonstrated greater reductions in wound area by Day 28 (57% reduction) and Day 56 (76% reduction) than the Control Group (35% and 59%, respectively). Moreover, reductions in wound area had significant negative relationships with CD15+ cells in wound fluid at Days 28 (p = 0.008) and 56 (p < 0.001), and CD66b+ cells at Days 28 (p = 0.04) and 56 (p = 0.009). The collective findings provide supplemental evidence that high levels of activated PMNs in CVLU microenvironments inhibit healing, and suggest that EPA + DHA oral therapy may modulate PMN activity and facilitate healing of CVLUs when added to standard care regimens. PMID: 28758717 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]